Immunology Test HIV, Hepatitis, Arthritis, Torch IgM, Toxoplasma IgM, Rubella IgM, Cytomegalovirus,etc..

What Is Immunology?

Immunology is the investigation of the insusceptible framework and is an imperative branch of the therapeutic and organic sciences. The resistant framework shields us from contamination through different lines of safeguard. In the event that the resistant framework isn’t working as it should, it can result in infection, for example, autoimmunity, hypersensitivity and growth. It is likewise currently winding up obvious that resistant reactions add to the improvement of numerous normal issue not customarily saw as immunologic, including metabolic, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative conditions, for example, Alzheimer’s.

Importance of Immunology

From Edward Jenner’s spearheading work in the Eighteenth Century that would at last prompt inoculation in its cutting edge frame (a development that has likely spared a bigger number of lives than some other restorative progress), to the numerous logical leaps forward in the nineteenth and twentieth hundreds of years that would prompt, in addition to other things, safe organ transplantation, the distinguishing proof of blood gatherings, and the now omnipresent utilization of monoclonal antibodies all through science and human services, immunology has changed the substance of present-day medication. Immunological research keeps on expanding skylines in our comprehension of how to treat critical medical problems, with continuous research endeavours in immunotherapy, immune system ailments, and immunizations for rising pathogens, for example, Ebola. Propelling our comprehension of fundamental immunology is basic for clinical and business application and has encouraged the disclosure of new diagnostics and medicines to deal with a wide cluster of ailments. Notwithstanding the above, combined with propelling innovation, immunological research has given fundamentally vital research procedures and devices, for example, stream cytometry and neutralizer innovation.

Clinical Immunology

The immune system is a highly regulated and balanced system and when the balance is disturbed, the disease can result. Research in this area involves studying the disease that is caused by immune system dysfunction. Much of this work has significance in the development of new therapies and treatments that can manage or cure the condition by altering the way the immune system is working or, in the case of vaccines, priming the immune system and boosting the immune reaction to specific pathogens.

Immunodeficiency Disorders problems with the immune system that impair its ability to mount an appropriate defence. As a result, these are almost always associated with severe infections that persist, recur and/or lead to complications, making these disorders severely debilitating and even fatal. There are two types of immunodeficiency disorders: primary immunodeficiencies are typically present from birth, are generally hereditary and are relatively rare. Such an example is a common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Secondary immunodeficiencies generally develop later in life and may result following an infection, as is the case with AIDS following HIV infection.

Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system attacks the body it is meant to protect. People suffering from autoimmune diseases have a defect that makes them unable to distinguish ‘self’ from ‘non-self’ or ‘foreign’ molecules. The principles of immunology have provided a wide variety of laboratory tests for the detection of autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune diseases may be described as ‘primary’ autoimmune diseases, like type-1 diabetes, which may be manifested from birth or during early life; or as ‘secondary’ autoimmune diseases, which manifest later in life due to various factors. Rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis are thought to belong to this type of autoimmunity. Also, autoimmune diseases can be localised, such as Crohn’s Disease affecting the GI tract, or systemic, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

Allergies are hypersensitivity disorders that occur when the body’s immune system reacts against harmless foreign substances, resulting in damage to the body’s own tissues. Almost any substance can cause allergies (an allergen), but most commonly, allergies arise after eating certain types of food, such as peanuts, or from inhaling airborne substances, such as pollen, or dust. In allergic reactions, the body believes allergens are dangerous and immediately produces substances to attack them. This causes cells of the immune system to release potent chemicals like histamine, which causes inflammation and many of the symptoms associated with allergies. Immunology strives to understand what happens to the body during an allergic response and the factors responsible for causing them. This should lead to better methods of diagnosing, preventing and controlling allergic diseases.

Asthma is a debilitating and sometimes fatal disease of the airways. It generally occurs when the immune system responds to inhaled particles from the air and can lead to thickening of the airways in patients over time. It is a major cause of illness and is particularly prevalent in children. In some cases it has an allergic component, however, in a number of cases, the origin is more complex and poorly understood.

Cancer is a disease of abnormal and uncontrolled cell growth and proliferation and is defined by a set of hallmarks, one of which is the capacity for cancer cells to avoid immune destruction. With the knowledge that evasion of the immune system can contribute to cancer, researchers have turned to manipulate the immune system to defeat cancer (immunotherapy). Cancer immunotherapy seeks to stimulate the immune system’s innate powers to fight cancerous tissue and has shown extraordinary promise as a new weapon in our arsenal against the disease. Other applications of immunological knowledge against cancer include the use of monoclonal antibodies (proteins that seek and directly bind to a specific target protein called an antigen.

Transplants involve transferring cells, tissues or organs from a donor to a recipient. The most formidable barrier to transplants is the immune system’s recognition of the transplanted organs as foreign. Understanding the mechanisms and clinical features of rejection is important in determining a diagnosis, advising treatment and is critical for developing new strategies and drugs to manage transplants and limit the risk of rejection.

Vaccines are agents that teach the body to recognise and defend itself against infections from harmful pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses and parasites. It provides a sneak ‘preview’ of a specific pathogen, which stimulates the body’s immune system to prepare itself in the event that infection occurs. It contains a harmless element of the infectious agent that stimulates the immune system to mount a response, beginning with the production of antibodies. Cells responsive to the vaccine proliferate both in order to manufacture antibodies specific to the provoking agent and also to form ‘memory cells’. Upon encountering the infectious agent a second time, these memory cells are quickly able to deal with the threat by producing sufficient quantities of antibody. Pathogens inside the body are eventually destroyed, thereby thwarting further infection. Several infectious diseases including smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, tuberculosis and polio are no longer a threat in Europe due to the successful application of vaccines list.

Some of the clinical test for Immunology:-

Widal, VDRL, Rheumatoid Arthritis Factor(Quantitative), A.S.O Titre, CRP, CRP(Quantitative), VDRL Titre, Dengue IgM, Dengue IgG, TPHA(Treponemal pallidum antibodies), Typhidot IgM & IgG, HIV I & II(Dot method), Hbs Ag (Australia Antigen), HBs Antibodies, HBc (core) Antibody – IgM, HBc (Core) Total antibodies, Hbe(envelope) Antigen, HBe(envelope) Antibody, Hepatitis A Virus IgM, Hepatitis A Virus IgG, Hepatitis A Virus total antibodies, Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) IgM, Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) IgG, HCV IgM & IgG, Torch IgM, Toxoplasma IgM, Rubella IgM, Cytomegalovirus IgM, Herpes 1&2 IgM, Torch IgG, Toxoplasma IgG, Rubella IgG, Cytomegalovirus IgG, Herpes IgG, Tmo, TPA antibodies, Thyroglobulin (TGA) antibodies, Antinuclear antibodies (ANA), Anti DS DNA antibody, Antiphospholipid IgG, Antiphospholipid IgA, Cardiolipin Antibodies IgG, Cardiolipin Antibodies IgM (ACL), Cardiolipin Antibodies IgA, S.IgA Immunoglobulin, Total IgE, Cysticercosis Serology, Amoebic Serology, Antisperm antibody, Hydatid/Ecinococcus, Serology (IgG antibodies), Entamoeba Histoytica (EH) Serology.

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